Fundamentally, a debate is a discussion between two opposing parties. Inherently, it is fueled by disagreement, so rebuttals are essential to a debate. All speakers will be tasked with providing rebuttals of the opposing team’s arguments, except for the first affirmative speaker. Therefore, to succeed as a debater, it is important that you know how to formulate effective rebuttals.
Preparing a Rebuttal
There are a few steps to follow when you are coming up with a rebuttal.
First and foremost, consider your side and what it represents. Are you on the affirmative team or the negative team? What are the differences between your stance and the opposing team’s? It is helpful to look at the motion and frame your stance around it. For example, if the motion is “that publicly posting students’ grades will motivate them to perform better” and you are on the negative team, then your overall stance should be “that publicly posting students’ grades will NOT motivate them to perform better”.
Secondly, think of the reasons to justify your stance. In the above example, you should come up with arguments for why publicly posting students’ grades will not motivate them to perform better, or might even lead to poorer performance. Depending on how the debate is run, you may or may not have the time for research. If you do, you could incorporate more specific examples and statistics to support your argument.
Thirdly, consider opposing arguments that could undermine your own. For example, if you say that publicly posting students’ grades will result in undue pressure and negatively impact their mental health, which has been linked to poorer academic performance, the other team might argue that publicly posting students’ grades will create a healthy amount of competition to motivate everyone to do well, giving them a sense of accomplishment and pride, which can be linked to better mental health outcomes. You should think of ways to rebut this argument, like “the sense of accomplishment is temporary; students actually perform better when they focus on doing their personal best rather than beating others”. Your goal is to have the last word, by making it difficult for your opponent to rebut your arguments.
Presenting the Rebuttal
Similarly, there are a few steps to follow when presenting your rebuttals.
Firstly, illustrate the dichotomy between your team’s stance and your opponent’s stance. You can say “this debate is about whether we should publicly post students’ grades or keep them confidential”.
Secondly, you should outline the primary reasons that the debate adjudicator should support your side. Afterwards, you should delve deeper into each reason, providing an explanation and at least one example. Throughout your speech, be sure to stand up straight and speak confidently with an audible voice, a firm tone, hand gestures and eye contact to both the opposing team and the adjudicator.
Finally, conclude your speech by encouraging the debate adjudicator to support your stance.
Once you have nailed the art of crafting powerful rebuttals, you are one step closer to becoming a pro debater. Check out to hone and showcase your debate skills. From courses to debate exchanges, there is a program for everyone.